Dr Filip Biljecki · Assistant Professor · NUS · Singapore

I am an urban data scientist & professor at the National University of Singapore where I have established the NUS Urban Analytics Lab, which has been a home for dozens of enthusiastic researchers who share ambitions about making our cities smarter and more data-driven. My background is in Geomatic engineering and geospatial technologies, and I am jointly appointed as Assistant Professor at the Department of Architecture (College of Design and Engineering) and the Department of Real Estate (NUS Business School). I hold a PhD degree (with highest honours, top 5%) in 3D GIS from the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, where I also did my MSc in Geomatics. In 2020, I have been awarded the Presidential Young Professorship by NUS.

For more updates and further information about ongoing research, please visit the website of my research group, which features the work of my awesome colleagues I am proud to work with. You can also read more about the research agenda in my recent interview. Also, below is a recent video about our work.

Building smarter, more sustainable, liveable cities: The Urban Analytics Lab from Filip Biljecki on Vimeo.


I welcome prospective highly-qualified students, visiting scholars, and postdocs to my research group. If you look for a PhD position, please read this guide first.

Additional appointments

Research interests

  • 3D city modelling, (urban) digital twins

  • GeoAI

  • VGI/OpenStreetMap, Spatial data infrastructure

  • Geographic/urban data science

  • Spatial data quality and propagation of uncertainty




Research group and openings

Our research group, the Urban Analytics Lab, is open to talented and highly motivated PhD candidates, research assistants, and postdoctoral research fellows who aspire to work on thrilling topics in the domain of GIScience, 3D city modelling and geographic data science in Singapore. Feel free to read more about our work and job opportunities on the website of the Lab.

Awards and honours (selected)

  • Urban Informatics Paper of the Year Award, 2023

  • Best paper award at 3D GeoInfo, 2023

  • CDE Young Researcher Award (NUS), 2023

  • College Teaching Excellence Award (NUS), 2023

  • Top 2% scientists worldwide (Stanford University), 2021

  • School Teaching Excellence Award (NUS), 2021

  • Presidential Young Professorship (NUS), 2020

  • buildingSMART International Special Distinction Winner for Innovation, 2019

  • EuroSDR (association of European national mapping and cadastral agencies, and universities) award for the best PhD thesis related to GIS in Europe, 2017

  • PhD degree conferred with highest honours (given at Dutch universities for top 5% best theses), 2017

  • 3D GeoInfo best paper award, 2017

  • Austrian Academy of Sciences -- Young Researcher Award in GIScience, 2016


My publications


Peer-reviewed

121

    G2Viz: an online tool for visualizing and analyzing a public transit system from GTFS data
    Sirapop Para, Thanachok Wirotsasithon, Thanisorn Jundee, Merkebe Getachew Demissie, Yoshihide Sekimoto, Filip Biljecki, Santi Phithakkitnukoon
    Public Transport, 2024.
    PDF   DOI   Website    

    @article{2024_pt_g2viz,
        author = {Para, Sirapop and Wirotsasithon, Thanachok and Jundee, Thanisorn and Demissie, Merkebe Getachew and Sekimoto, Yoshihide and Biljecki, Filip and Phithakkitnukoon, Santi},
        doi = {10.1007/s12469-024-00362-x},
        journal = {Public Transport},
        title = {G2Viz: an online tool for visualizing and analyzing a public transit system from GTFS data},
        year = {2024}
    }

120

    Assessing governance implications of city digital twin technology: A maturity model approach
    Masahiko Haraguchi, Tomomi Funahashi, Filip Biljecki
    Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 204: 123409, 2024.
    PDF   DOI    

    @article{2024_tfsc_dt_maturity,
        author = {Haraguchi, Masahiko and Funahashi, Tomomi and Biljecki, Filip},
        doi = {10.1016/j.techfore.2024.123409},
        journal = {Technological Forecasting and Social Change},
        pages = {123409},
        title = {Assessing governance implications of city digital twin technology: A maturity model approach},
        volume = {204},
        year = {2024}
    }

119

    Mapping the landscape and roadmap of geospatial artificial intelligence (GeoAI) in quantitative human geography: An extensive systematic review
    Siqin Wang, Xiao Huang, Pengyuan Liu, Mengxi Zhang, Filip Biljecki, Tao Hu, Xiaokang Fu, Lingbo Liu, Xintao Liu, Ruomei Wang, Yuanyuan Huang, Jingjing Yan, Jinghan Jiang, Michaelmary Chukwu, Seyed Reza Naghedi, Moein Hemmati, Yaxiong Shao, Nan Jia, Zhiyang Xiao, Tian Tian, Yaxin Hu, Lixiaona Yu, Winston Yap, Edgardo Macatulad, Zhuo Chen, Yunhe Cui, Koichi Ito, Mengbi Ye, Zicheng Fan, Binyu Lei, Shuming Bao
    International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 128: 103734, 2024.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2024_jag_geoai_hg,
        author = {Wang, Siqin and Huang, Xiao and Liu, Pengyuan and Zhang, Mengxi and Biljecki, Filip and Hu, Tao and Fu, Xiaokang and Liu, Lingbo and Liu, Xintao and Wang, Ruomei and Huang, Yuanyuan and Yan, Jingjing and Jiang, Jinghan and Chukwu, Michaelmary and Reza Naghedi, Seyed and Hemmati, Moein and Shao, Yaxiong and Jia, Nan and Xiao, Zhiyang and Tian, Tian and Hu, Yaxin and Yu, Lixiaona and Yap, Winston and Macatulad, Edgardo and Chen, Zhuo and Cui, Yunhe and Ito, Koichi and Ye, Mengbi and Fan, Zicheng and Lei, Binyu and Bao, Shuming},
        doi = {10.1016/j.jag.2024.103734},
        issn = {1569-8432},
        journal = {International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation},
        pages = {103734},
        title = {Mapping the landscape and roadmap of geospatial artificial intelligence (GeoAI) in quantitative human geography: An extensive systematic review},
        volume = {128},
        year = {2024}
    }

118

    Microclimate spatio-temporal prediction using deep learning and land use data
    Jintong Han, Adrian Chong, Joie Lim, Savitha Ramasamy, Nyuk Hien Wong, Filip Biljecki
    Building and Environment, 253: 111358, 2024.
    PDF   DOI   Code    

    @article{2024_bae_microclimate_prediction,
        author = {Han, Jintong and Chong, Adrian and Lim, Joie and Ramasamy, Savitha and Wong, Nyuk Hien and Biljecki, Filip},
        doi = {10.1016/j.buildenv.2024.111358},
        journal = {Building and Environment},
        pages = {111358},
        title = {Microclimate spatio-temporal prediction using deep learning and land use data},
        volume = {253},
        year = {2024}
    }

117

    Humans As Sensors in Urban Digital Twins
    Binyu Lei, Yunlei Su, Filip Biljecki
    Recent Advances in 3D Geoinformation Science (Proceedings of the 18th 3D GeoInfo Conference), Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography (edited by Kolbe TH, Donaubauer A, Beil C), pp. 693-706, 2024.
    PDF   DOI    

    @inbook{2024_3dgeoinfo_humans_sensors,
        author = {Lei, Binyu and Su, Yunlei and Biljecki, Filip},
        booktitle = {Recent Advances in 3D Geoinformation Science},
        doi = {10.1007/978-3-031-43699-4_42},
        isbn = {9783031436994},
        issn = {1863-2351},
        pages = {693--706},
        publisher = {Springer Nature Switzerland},
        title = {Humans As Sensors in Urban Digital Twins},
        year = {2024}
    }
    

116

    Assessment of the LoD Specification for the Integration of BIM-Derived Building Models in 3D City Models
    Jasper van der Vaart, Jantien Stoter, Abdoulaye Diakité, Filip Biljecki, Ken Arroyo Ohori, Amir Hakim
    Recent Advances in 3D Geoinformation Science (Proceedings of the 18th 3D GeoInfo Conference), Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography (edited by Kolbe TH, Donaubauer A, Beil C), pp. 171-191, 2024.
    PDF   DOI    

    @inbook{2024_3dgeoinfo_bim_lod,
        author = {van der Vaart, Jasper and Stoter, Jantien and Diakit{\'e}, Abdoulaye and Biljecki, Filip and Arroyo Ohori, Ken and Hakim, Amir},
        booktitle = {Recent Advances in 3D Geoinformation Science},
        doi = {10.1007/978-3-031-43699-4_11},
        isbn = {9783031436994},
        issn = {1863-2351},
        pages = {171--191},
        publisher = {Springer Nature Switzerland},
        title = {Assessment of the LoD Specification for the Integration of BIM-Derived Building Models in 3D City Models},
        year = {2024}
    }
    

115

    Continuing from the Sendai Framework midterm: Opportunities for urban digital twins in disaster risk management
    Edgardo Macatulad, Filip Biljecki
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 102: 104310, 2024.
    PDF   DOI    

    @article{2024_ijdrr_sendai,
        author = {Macatulad, Edgardo and Biljecki, Filip},
        doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2024.104310},
        journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction},
        pages = {104310},
        title = {Continuing from the Sendai Framework midterm: Opportunities for urban digital twins in disaster risk management},
        volume = {102},
        year = {2024}
    }
    

114

    Learning visual features from figure-ground maps for urban morphology discovery
    Jing Wang, Weiming Huang, Filip Biljecki
    Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 109: 102076, 2024.
    PDF   DOI    

    @article{2024_ceus_urban_form_discovery,
        author = {Wang, Jing and Huang, Weiming and Biljecki, Filip},
        doi = {10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2024.102076},
        journal = {Computers, Environment and Urban Systems},
        pages = {102076},
        title = {Learning visual features from figure-ground maps for urban morphology discovery},
        volume = {109},
        year = {2024}
    }
    

113

    Crowdsourcing Geospatial Data for Earth and Human Observations: A Review
    Xiao Huang, Siqin Wang, Di Yang, Tao Hu, Meixu Chen, Mengxi Zhang, Guiming Zhang, Filip Biljecki, Tianjun Lu, Lei Zou, Connor Y.H. Wu, Yoo Min Park, Xiao Li, Yunzhe Liu, Hongchao Fan, Jessica Mitchell, Zhenlong Li, Alexander Hohl
    Journal of Remote Sensing, 4: 0105, 2024.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2024_jrs_crowdsourcing,
        author = {Huang, Xiao and Wang, Siqin and Yang, Di and Hu, Tao and Chen, Meixu and Zhang, Mengxi and Zhang, Guiming and Biljecki, Filip and Lu, Tianjun and Zou, Lei and Wu, Connor Y. H. and Park, Yoo Min and Li, Xiao and Liu, Yunzhe and Fan, Hongchao and Mitchell, Jessica and Li, Zhenlong and Hohl, Alexander},
        doi = {10.34133/remotesensing.0105},
        journal = {Journal of Remote Sensing},
        title = {Crowdsourcing Geospatial Data for Earth and Human Observations: A Review},
        volume = {4},
        number = {0105},
        year = {2024}
    }
    

112

    Assessing the Equity and Evolution of Urban Visual Perceptual Quality with Time Series Street View Imagery
    Zeyu Wang, Koichi Ito, Filip Biljecki
    Cities, 145: 104704, 2024.
    PDF   DOI    

    @article{2024_cities_evolution,
        author = {Wang, Zeyu and Ito, Koichi and Biljecki, Filip},
        doi = {10.1016/j.cities.2023.104704},
        journal = {Cities},
        pages = {104704},
        title = {Assessing the equity and evolution of urban visual perceptual quality with time series street view imagery},
        volume = {145},
        year = {2024}
    }
    

111

    Global urban road network patterns: Unveiling multiscale planning paradigms of 144 cities with a novel deep learning approach
    Wangyang Chen, Huiming Huang, Shunyi Liao, Feng Gao, Filip Biljecki
    Landscape and Urban Planning, 241: 104901, 2024.
    PDF   DOI   Code    

    @article{2024_land_urn,
      author = {Chen, Wangyang and Huang, Huiming and Liao, Shunyi and Gao, Feng and Biljecki, Filip},
      doi = {10.1016/j.landurbplan.2023.104901},
      journal = {Landscape and Urban Planning},
      title = {{Global urban road network patterns: Unveiling multiscale planning paradigms of 144 cities with a novel deep learning approach}},
      volume = {241},
      pages = {104901},
      year = {2024}
    }
    

110

    Explainable spatially explicit geospatial artificial intelligence in urban analytics
    Pengyuan Liu, Yan Zhang, Filip Biljecki
    Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, 51(5): 1104-1123, 2024.
    PDF   DOI   Code    

    @article{2024_epb_xai,
      author = {Liu, Pengyuan and Yan, Zhang and Biljecki, Filip},
      doi = {10.1177/23998083231204689},
      journal = {Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science},
      pages = {1104--1123},
      title = {{Explainable spatially explicit geospatial artificial intelligence in urban analytics}},
      volume = {51},
      issue = {5},
      year = {2024}
    }
    

109

    GeoAI for Urban Sensing
    Filip Biljecki
    Handbook of Geospatial Artificial Intelligence (eds. Song Gao, Yingjie Hu, Wenwen Li), CRC Press, pp. 351-366, 2023.
    PDF   DOI    

    @inbook{2023_geoai_handbook_urban_sensing,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip},
        booktitle = {Handbook of Geospatial Artificial Intelligence},
        chapter = {17},
        doi = {10.1201/9781003308423-17},
        editor = {Song Gao and Yingjie Hu and Wenwen Li},
        isbn = {9781003308423},
        pages = {351--366},
        publisher = {CRC Press},
        title = {GeoAI for Urban Sensing},
        year = {2023}
    }
    

108

    District-scale surface temperatures generated from high-resolution longitudinal thermal infrared images
    Subin Lin, Vasantha Ramani, Miguel Martin, Pandarasamy Arjunan, Adrian Chong, Filip Biljecki, Marcel Ignatius, Kameshwar Poolla, Clayton Miller
    Scientific Data, 10: 859, 2023.
    PDF   DOI   Data     Open access

    @article{2023_sd_iris,
        author = {Lin, Subin and Ramani, Vasantha and Martin, Miguel and Arjunan, Pandarasamy and Chong, Adrian and Biljecki, Filip and Ignatius, Marcel and Poolla, Kameshwar and Miller, Clayton},
        doi = {10.1038/s41597-023-02749-0},
        journal = {Scientific Data},
        pages = {859},
        title = {District-scale surface temperatures generated from high-resolution longitudinal thermal infrared images},
        volume = {10},
        year = {2023}
    }
    

107

    The Building Data Genome Directory – An open, comprehensive data sharing platform for building performance research
    Xiaoyu Jin, Chun Fu, Hussain Kazmi, Atilla Balint, Ada Canaydin, Matias Quintana, Filip Biljecki, Fu Xiao, Clayton Miller
    Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2600: 032003, 2023.
    PDF   DOI   Website     Open access

    @article{2023_cisbat_directory,
        author = {Jin, Xiaoyu and Fu, Chun and Kazmi, Hussain and Balint, Atilla and Canaydin, Ada and Quintana, Matias and Biljecki, Filip and Xiao, Fu and Miller, Clayton},
        doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/2600/3/032003},
        journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
        number = {3},
        pages = {032003},
        title = {The Building Data Genome Directory -- An open, comprehensive data sharing platform for building performance research},
        volume = {2600},
        year = {2023}
    }
    

106

    Introducing the Cool, Quiet City Competition: Predicting Smartwatch-Reported Heat and Noise with Digital Twin Metrics
    Clayton Miller, Matias Quintana, Mario Frei, Yun Xuan Chua, Chun Fu, Bianca Picchetti, Winston Yap, Adrian Chong, Filip Biljecki
    Proceedings of the 10th ACM International Conference on Systems for Energy-Efficient Buildings, Cities, and Transportation, pp. 298-299, 2023.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2023_buildsys_cool_quiet, 
    year = {2023}, 
    title = {{Introducing the Cool, Quiet City Competition: Predicting Smartwatch-Reported Heat and Noise with Digital Twin Metrics}}, 
    author = {Miller, Clayton and Quintana, Matias and Frei, Mario and Chua, Yun Xuan and Fu, Chun and Picchetti, Bianca and Yap, Winston and Chong, Adrian and Biljecki, Filip}, 
    journal = {Proceedings of the 10th ACM International Conference on Systems for Energy-Efficient Buildings, Cities, and Transportation}, 
    doi = {10.1145/3600100.3626269}, 
    pages = {298--299}
    }
    

105

    A Dynamic Urban Digital Twin Integrating Longitudinal Thermal Imagery for Microclimate Studies
    Vasantha Ramani, Marcel Ignatius, Joie Lim, Filip Biljecki, Clayton Miller
    Proceedings of the 10th ACM International Conference on Systems for Energy-Efficient Buildings, Cities, and Transportation, pp. 421-428, 2023.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2023_buildsys_ir_dt, 
    year = {2023}, 
    title = {{A Dynamic Urban Digital Twin Integrating Longitudinal Thermal Imagery for Microclimate Studies}}, 
    author = {Ramani, Vasantha and Ignatius, Marcel and Lim, Joie and Biljecki, Filip and Miller, Clayton}, 
    journal = {Proceedings of the 10th ACM International Conference on Systems for Energy-Efficient Buildings, Cities, and Transportation}, 
    doi = {10.1145/3600100.3626345}, 
    pages = {421--428}
    }
    

104

    A Global Feature-Rich Network Dataset of Cities and Dashboard for Comprehensive Urban Analyses
    Winston Yap, Filip Biljecki
    Scientific Data, 10: 667, 2023.
    PDF   DOI   Code   Data     Open access

    @article{2023_sd_urbanitydata,
      author = {Yap, Winston and Biljecki, Filip},
      doi = {10.1038/s41597-023-02578-1},
      journal = {Scientific Data},
      title = {{A Global Feature-Rich Network Dataset of Cities and Dashboard for Comprehensive Urban Analyses}},
      volume = {10},
      pages = {667},
      year = {2023}
    }
    

103

    Urbanity: automated modelling and analysis of multidimensional networks in cities
    Winston Yap, Rudi Stouffs, Filip Biljecki
    npj Urban Sustainability, 3: 45, 2023.
    PDF   DOI   Code   Blog post     Open access

    @article{2023_npjus_urbanity,
      author = {Yap, Winston and Stouffs, Rudi and Biljecki, Filip},
      doi = {10.1038/s42949-023-00125-w},
      journal = {npj Urban Sustainability},
      title = {{Urbanity: automated modelling and analysis of multidimensional networks in cities}},
      volume = {3},
      number = {45},
      year = {2023}
    }
    

102

    Sensitivity of measuring the urban form and greenery using street-level imagery: A comparative study of approaches and visual perspectives
    Filip Biljecki, Tianhong Zhao, Xiucheng Liang, Yujun Hou
    International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 122: 103385.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2023_jag_svi_sensitivity,
        author = {Filip Biljecki and Tianhong Zhao and Xiucheng Liang and Yujun Hou},
        doi = {10.1016/j.jag.2023.103385},
        journal = {International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation},
        pages = {103385},
        title = {{Sensitivity of measuring the urban form and greenery using street-level imagery: A comparative study of approaches and visual perspectives}},
        volume = {122},
        year = {2023}
    }
    

101

    Insights in a city through the eyes of Airbnb reviews: Sensing urban characteristics from homestay guest experiences
    Jiaxuan Wang, Yoong Shin Chow, Filip Biljecki
    Cities, 140: 104399, 2023.
    PDF   DOI    

    @article{2023_cities_airbnb,
        author = {Jiaxuan Wang and Yoong Shin Chow and Filip Biljecki},
        doi = {10.1016/j.cities.2023.104399},
        journal = {Cities},
        pages = {104399},
        title = {{Insights in a city through the eyes of Airbnb reviews: Sensing urban characteristics from homestay guest experiences}},
        volume = {140},
        year = {2023}
    }
    

100

    How spatio-temporal resolution impacts urban energy calibration
    Aysegul Demir Dilsiz, Kingsley E. Nweye, Allen J. Wu, Jérôme H. Kämpf, Filip Biljecki, Zoltan Nagy
    Energy and Buildings, 292: 113175, 2023.
    PDF   DOI    

    @article{2023_enb_ubem_resolution,
        author = {Aysegul Demir Dilsiz and Kingsley E. Nweye and Allen J. Wu and Jérôme H. Kämpf and Filip Biljecki and Zoltan Nagy},
        doi = {10.1016/j.enbuild.2023.113175},
        journal = {Energy and Buildings},
        pages = {113175},
        title = {{How spatio-temporal resolution impacts urban energy calibration}},
        volume = {292},
        year = {2023}
    }
    

99

    Revealing spatio-temporal evolution of urban visual environments with street view imagery
    Xiucheng Liang, Tianhong Zhao, Filip Biljecki
    Landscape and Urban Planning, 237: 104802, 2023.
    PDF   DOI    

    @article{2023_landup_svi_evolution,
        author = {Xiucheng Liang and Tianhong Zhao and Filip Biljecki},
        doi = {10.1016/j.landurbplan.2023.104802},
        journal = {Landscape and Urban Planning},
        pages = {104802},
        title = {{Revealing spatio-temporal evolution of urban visual environments with street view imagery}},
        volume = {237},
        year = {2023}
    }
    

98

    Developing a multiview spatiotemporal model based on deep graph neural networks to predict the travel demand by bus
    Tianhong Zhao, Zhengdong Huang, Wei Tu, Filip Biljecki, Long Chen
    International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 37(7): 1555-1581, 2023.
    PDF   DOI    

    @article{2023_ijgis_bus_demand,
        author = {Tianhong Zhao and Zhengdong Huang and Wei Tu and Filip Biljecki and Long Chen},
        doi = {10.1080/13658816.2023.2203218},
        journal = {International Journal of Geographical Information Science},
        pages = {1555-1581},
        title = {{Developing a multiview spatiotemporal model based on deep graph neural networks to predict the travel demand by bus}},
        volume = {37},
        issue = {7},
        year = {2023}
    }
    

97

    Automatic assessment of public open spaces using street view imagery
    Shuting Chen, Filip Biljecki
    Cities, 137: 104329, 2023.
    PDF   DOI    

    @article{2023_cities_pos,
        author = {Shuting Chen and Filip Biljecki},
        doi = {10.1016/j.cities.2023.104329},
        journal = {Cities},
        pages = {104329},
        title = {{Automatic assessment of public open spaces using street view imagery}},
        volume = {137},
        year = {2023}
    }
    

96

    Quality of crowdsourced geospatial building information: A global assessment of OpenStreetMap attributes
    Filip Biljecki, Yoong Shin Chow, Kay Lee
    Building and Environment, 237: 110295, 2023.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2023_bae_osm_qa,
        author = {Filip Biljecki and Yoong Shin Chow and Kay Lee},
        doi = {10.1016/j.buildenv.2023.110295},
        journal = {Building and Environment},
        pages = {110295},
        title = {{Quality of crowdsourced geospatial building information: A global assessment of OpenStreetMap attributes}},
        volume = {237},
        year = {2023}
    }
    

95

    EUBUCCO v0.1: European building stock characteristics in a common and open database for 200+ million individual buildings
    Nikola Milojevic-Dupont, Felix Wagner, Florian Nachtigall, Jiawei Hu, Geza Boi Brüser, Marius Zumwald, Filip Biljecki, Niko Heeren, Lynn H. Kaack, Peter-Paul Pichler, Felix Creutzig
    Scientific Data, 10: 147, 2023.
    PDF   DOI   Website   Code   Data     Open access

    @article{2023_sd_eubucco,
      author = {{Milojevic-Dupont, Nikola and Wagner, Felix} and Nachtigall, Florian and Hu, Jiawei and Br{\"u}ser, Geza Boi and Zumwald, Marius and Biljecki, Filip and Heeren, Niko and Kaack, Lynn H. and Pichler, Peter-Paul and Creutzig, Felix},
      doi = {10.1038/s41597-023-02040-2},
      journal = {Scientific Data},
      number = {1},
      pages = {147},
      title = {EUBUCCO v0.1: European building stock characteristics in a common and open database for 200+ million individual buildings},
      volume = {10},
      year = {2023}
    }
    

94

    Knowledge and topology: A two layer spatially dependent graph neural networks to identify urban functions with time-series street view image
    Yan Zhang, Pengyuan Liu, Filip Biljecki
    ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 198: 153-168, 2023.
    PDF   DOI   Code    

    @article{2023_ijprs_knowledge_topology,
      title = {{Knowledge and topology: A two layer spatially dependent graph neural networks to identify urban functions with time-series street view image}},
      journal = {ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing},
      volume = {198},
      pages = {153-168},
      year = {2023},
      doi = {10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2023.03.008},
      author = {Yan Zhang and Pengyuan Liu and Filip Biljecki},
      }
    

93

    Towards Human-centric Digital Twins: Leveraging Computer Vision and Graph Models to Predict Outdoor Comfort
    Pengyuan Liu, Tianhong Zhao, Junjie Luo, Binyu Lei, Mario Frei, Clayton Miller, Filip Biljecki
    Sustainable Cities and Society, 93: 104480, 2023.
    PDF   DOI   Code    

    @article{2023_scs_human_dt,
        author = {Liu, Pengyuan and Zhao, Tianhong and Luo, Junjie and Lei, Binyu and Frei, Mario and Miller, Clayton and Biljecki, Filip},
        doi = {10.1016/j.scs.2023.104480},
        journal = {Sustainable Cities and Society},
        pages = {104480},
        title = {{Towards Human-centric Digital Twins: Leveraging Computer Vision and Graph Models to Predict Outdoor Comfort}},
        volume = {93},
        year = {2023}
    }
    

92

    Analytical Framework in Cloud-Native Environments for Auto-Modelling Sparse Human Mobility Considering Memory of Past Contexts
    Kohei Yamamoto, Joie Lim, Filip Biljecki, Rudi Stouffs
    13th International Conference on Cloud Computing, Data Science & Engineering (Confluence), 87-91, 2023.
    PDF   DOI    

    @article{2023_confluence_framework, 
      year = {2023}, 
      title = {{Analytical Framework in Cloud-Native Environments for Auto-Modelling Sparse Human Mobility Considering Memory of Past Contexts}}, 
      author = {Yamamoto, Kohei and Lim, Joie and Biljecki, Filip and Stouffs, Rudi}, 
      journal = {2023 13th International Conference on Cloud Computing, Data Science \& Engineering (Confluence)}, 
      doi = {10.1109/confluence56041.2023.10048820}, 
      pages = {87--91}
    }
    

91

    Exploring spatiotemporal pattern and agglomeration of road CO2 emissions in Guangdong, China
    Xingdong Deng, Wangyang Chen, Qingya Zhou, Yuming Zheng, Hongbao Li, Shunyi Liao, Filip Biljecki
    Science of The Total Environment, 871: 162134, 2023.
    PDF   DOI    

    @article{2023_stoten_emission_patterns, 
      year = {2023}, 
      title = {{Exploring spatiotemporal pattern and agglomeration of road CO2 emissions in Guangdong, China}}, 
      author = {Deng, Xingdong and Chen, Wangyang and Zhou, Qingya and Zheng, Yuming and Li, Hongbao and Liao, Shunyi and Biljecki, Filip}, 
      journal = {Science of The Total Environment}, 
      doi = {10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.162134}, 
      pages = {162134}, 
      volume = {871}
    }
    

90

    Challenges of Urban Digital Twins: A Systematic Review and a Delphi Expert Survey
    Binyu Lei, Patrick Janssen, Jantien Stoter, Filip Biljecki
    Automation in Construction, 147: 104716, 2023.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2023_autcon_dt_challenges, 
      year = {2023}, 
      title = {{Challenges of Urban Digital Twins: A Systematic Review and a Delphi Expert Survey}}, 
      author = {Lei, Binyu and Janssen, Patrick and Stoter, Jantien and Biljecki, Filip}, 
      journal = {Automation in Construction}, 
      doi = {10.1016/j.autcon.2022.104716}, 
      pages = {104716}, 
      volume = {147}
    }
    

89

    InstantCITY: Synthesising morphologically accurate geospatial data for urban form analysis, transfer, and quality control
    Abraham Noah Wu, Filip Biljecki
    ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 195: 90-104, 2023.
    PDF   DOI   Code    

    @article{2023_ijprs_instantcity,
     author = {Wu, Abraham Noah and Biljecki, Filip},
     doi = {10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2022.11.005},
     journal = {ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing},
     pages = {90-104},
     title = {InstantCITY: Synthesising morphologically accurate geospatial data for urban form analysis, transfer, and quality control},
     volume = {195},
     year = {2023}
    }
    

88

    Mining real estate ads and property transactions for building and amenity data acquisition
    Xinyu Chen, Filip Biljecki
    Urban Informatics, 1: 12, 2022.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2022_ui_real_estate_mining, 
      year = {2022}, 
      title = {{Mining real estate ads and property transactions for building and amenity data acquisition}}, 
      author = {Chen, Xinyu and Biljecki, Filip}, 
      journal = {Urban Informatics}, 
      doi = {10.1007/s44212-022-00012-2}, 
      pages = {12}, 
      volume = {1}
    }
    

87

    Sensing urban soundscapes from street view imagery
    Tianhong Zhao, Xiucheng Liang, Wei Tu, Zhengdong Huang, Filip Biljecki
    Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 99: 101915, 2023.
    PDF   DOI   Data    

    @article{2023_ceus_soundscapes,
      author = {Zhao, Tianhong and Liang, Xiucheng and Tu, Wei and Huang, Zhengdong and Biljecki, Filip},
      doi = {10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2022.101915},
      journal = {Computers, Environment and Urban Systems},
      pages = {101915},
      title = {Sensing urban soundscapes from street view imagery},
      volume = {99},
      year = {2023}
    }
    

86

    Assessing and benchmarking 3D city models
    Binyu Lei, Rudi Stouffs, Filip Biljecki
    International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 37(4): 788-809, 2023.
    PDF   DOI    

    @article{2023_ijgis_3d_city_index,
      author = {Lei, Binyu and Stouffs, Rudi and Biljecki, Filip},
      doi = {10.1080/13658816.2022.2140808},
      journal = {International Journal of Geographical Information Science},
      title = {{Assessing and benchmarking 3D city models}},
      year = {2023},
      pages = {788-809},
      volume = {37},
      issue = {4}
    }
    

85

    Incorporating Networks in Semantic Understanding of Streetscapes: Contextualising Active Mobility Decisions
    Winston Yap, Jiat-Hwee Chang, Filip Biljecki
    Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, 50(6): 1416-1437, 2023.
    PDF   DOI    

    @article{2023_epb_semantic_networks,
      author = {Yap, Winston and Chang, Jiat-Hwee and Biljecki, Filip},
      doi = {10.1177/23998083221138832},
      journal = {Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science},
      title = {Incorporating Networks in Semantic Understanding of Streetscapes: Contextualising Active Mobility Decisions},
      year = {2023},
      pages = {1416-1437},
      volume = {50},
      issue = {6}
    }
    

84

    3D building metrics for urban morphology
    Anna Labetski, Stelios Vitalis, Filip Biljecki, Ken Arroyo Ohori, Jantien Stoter
    International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 37(1): 36-67, 2023.
    PDF   DOI   Code   Data     Open access

    @article{2023_ijgis_3dbm,
      author = {Labetski, Anna and Vitalis, Stelios and Biljecki, Filip and Arroyo Ohori, Ken and Stoter, Jantien},
      doi = {10.1080/13658816.2022.2103818},
      journal = {International Journal of Geographical Information Science},
      title = {3D building metrics for urban morphology},
      year = {2023},
      volume = {37},
      issue = {1},
      pages = {36-67}
    }
    

83

    A comprehensive framework for evaluating the quality of street view imagery
    Yujun Hou, Filip Biljecki
    International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 115: 103094, 2022.
    PDF   DOI   Code     Open access

    @article{2022_jag_svi_quality, 
      year = {2022}, 
      title = {{A comprehensive framework for evaluating the quality of street view imagery}}, 
      author = {Hou, Yujun and Biljecki, Filip}, 
      journal = {International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation}, 
      doi = {10.1016/j.jag.2022.103094}, 
      pages = {103094}, 
      volume = {115}
    }
    

82

    Water View Imagery: Perception and evaluation of urban waterscapes worldwide
    Junjie Luo, Tianhong Zhao, Lei Cao, Filip Biljecki
    Ecological Indicators, 145: 109615, 2022.
    PDF   DOI   Data     Open access

    @article{2022_ei_water_view_imagery,
      author = {Luo, Junjie and Zhao, Tianhong and Cao, Lei and Biljecki, Filip},
      doi = {10.1016/j.ecolind.2022.109615},
      journal = {Ecological Indicators},
      pages = {109615},
      title = {Water View Imagery: Perception and evaluation of urban waterscapes worldwide},
      volume = {145},
      year = {2022}
    }
    

81

    Home gardening in Singapore: A feasibility study on the utilization of the vertical space of retrofitted high-rise public housing apartment buildings to increase urban vegetable self-sufficiency
    Shuang Song, Jia Chin Cheong, Joel S.H. Lee, Jonathan K.N. Tan, Zhongyu Chiam, Srishti Arora, Karl J.Q. Png, Johanah W.C. Seow, Felicia W.S. Leong, Ankit Palliwal, Filip Biljecki, Abel Tablada, Hugh T.W. Tan
    Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 78: 127755, 2022.
    PDF   DOI  

    @article{2022_ufug_homegardening,
      title = {Home gardening in Singapore: A feasibility study on the utilization of the vertical space of retrofitted high-rise public housing apartment buildings to increase urban vegetable self-sufficiency},
      author = {Shuang Song and Jia Chin Cheong and Joel S.H. Lee and Jonathan K.N. Tan and Zhongyu Chiam and Srishti Arora and Karl J.Q. Png and Johanah W.C. Seow and Felicia W.S. Leong and Ankit Palliwal and Filip Biljecki and Abel Tablada and Hugh T.W. Tan},
      journal = {Urban Forestry \& Urban Greening},
      year = {2022},
      volume = {78},
      pages = {127755},
      doi = {10.1016/j.ufug.2022.127755}
    }
    

80

    Comparing street view imagery and aerial perspectives in the built environment
    Leon Gaw, Shuting Chen, Yoong Shin Chow, Kay Lee, Filip Biljecki
    ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, X-4/W3-2022: 49-56, 2022.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2022_sdsc_svi_sat_comparison,
      year = {2022},
      title = {{Comparing street view imagery and aerial perspectives in the built environment}},
      author = {Gaw, LY and Chen, S and Chow, YS and Lee, K and Biljecki, F}, 
      journal = {ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences}, 
      volume = {X-4/W3-2022},
      pages = {49-56},
      doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-X-4-W3-2022-49-2022}
    }
    

79

    Local Climate Zones: Lessons from Singapore and potential improvement with street view imagery
    Marcel Ignatius, Ruohan Xu, Yujun Hou, Xiucheng Liang, Tianhong Zhao, Shisheng Chen, Nyuk Hien Wong, Filip Biljecki
    ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, X-4/W2-2022: 121-128, 2022.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2022_3dgeoinfo_lcz_sg_svi,
      year = {2022},
      title = {{Local Climate Zones: Lessons from Singapore and potential improvement with street view imagery}},
      author = {Ignatius, M and Xu, R and Hou, Y and Liang, X and Zhao, T and Chen, S and Wong, NH and Biljecki, F},
      journal = {ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences}, 
      volume = {X-4/W2-2022},
      pages = {121-128},
      doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-X-4-W2-2022-121-2022}
    }
    

78

    Dataset for urban scale building stock modelling: Identification and review of potential data collection approaches
    Wanyu Pei, Filip Biljecki, Rudi Stouffs
    ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, X-4/W2-2022: 225–232, 2022.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2022_3dgeoinfo_urban_building_stock,
      year = {2022},
      title = {{Dataset for urban scale building stock modelling: Identification and review of potential data collection approaches}},
      author = {Pei, WY and Biljecki, F and Stouffs, R},
      journal = {ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences}, 
      volume = {X-4/W2-2022},
      pages = {225–232},
      doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-X-4-W2-2022-225-2022}
    }
    

77

    Use cases for district-scale urban digital twins
    Pradeep Alva, Filip Biljecki, Rudi Stouffs
    The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XLVIII-4/W4-2022: 5-12, 2022.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2022_3dgeoinfo_dt_use_cases,
      year = {2022},
      title = {{Use cases for district-scale urban digital twins}},
      author = {Alva, P and Biljecki, F and Stouffs, R},
      journal = {The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences}, 
      volume = {XLVIII-4/W4-2022},
      pages = {5-12},
      doi = {10.5194/isprs-archives-XLVIII-4-W4-2022-5-2022}
    }
    

76

    Semantic Riverscapes: Perception and evaluation of linear landscapes from oblique imagery using computer vision
    Junjie Luo, Tianhong Zhao, Lei Cao, Filip Biljecki
    Landscape and Urban Planning, 228: 104569, 2022.
    PDF   DOI   Data  

    @article{2022_land_semantic_riverscapes, 
      year = {2022}, 
      title = {{Semantic Riverscapes: Perception and evaluation of linear landscapes from oblique imagery using computer vision}}, 
      author = {Luo, Junjie and Zhao, Tianhong, and Cao, Lei and Biljecki, Filip}, 
      journal = {Landscape and Urban Planning}, 
      doi = {10.1016/j.landurbplan.2022.104569}, 
      pages = {104569}, 
      volume = {228}
    }
    

75

    Generative Adversarial Networks in the Built Environment: A Comprehensive Review of the Application of GANs across Data Types and Scales
    Abraham Noah Wu, Rudi Stouffs, Filip Biljecki
    Building and Environment, 223: 109477, 2022.
    PDF   DOI  

    @article{2022_bae_gan,
      author = {Wu, Abraham Noah and Stouffs, Rudi and Biljecki, Filip},
      journal = {Building and Environment},
      title = {Generative Adversarial Networks in the Built Environment: A Comprehensive Review of the Application of GANs across Data Types and Scales},
      year = {2022},
      pages = {109477},
      volume = {223},
      doi = {10.1016/j.buildenv.2022.109477}
    }
    

74

    Unsupervised machine learning in urban studies: A systematic review of applications
    Jing Wang, Filip Biljecki
    Cities, 129: 103925, 2022.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2022_cities_unsupervised,
      author = {Wang, Jing and Biljecki, Filip},
      journal = {Cities},
      title = {Unsupervised machine learning in urban studies: A systematic review of applications},
      year = {2022},
      pages = {103925}, 
      volume = {129},
      doi = {10.1016/j.cities.2022.103925} 
    }
    

73

    A review of spatially-explicit GeoAI applications in Urban Geography
    Pengyuan Liu, Filip Biljecki
    International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 112: 102936, 2022.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2022_jag_geoai,
      author = {Liu, Pengyuan and Biljecki, Filip},
      journal = {International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation},
      title = {A review of spatially-explicit GeoAI applications in Urban Geography},
      year = {2022},
      volume = {112},
      pages = {102936},
      doi = {10.1016/j.jag.2022.102936}
    }
    

72

    Thermal Image Analysis of Singapore’s Housing Infrastructure
    Balakrishnan Naveen Mani Kumar, Mothiki Eswara Anirudh, Dhanabalan Jeevakaarthik, Clayton Miller, Filip Biljecki
    IRC-SET 2021, 163-176, 2022.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @inproceedings{2022_irc_thermal_sg, 
      year = {2022}, 
      title = {Thermal Image Analysis of Singapore’s Housing Infrastructure},
    author = {Kumar, Balakrishnan Naveen Mani and Anirudh, Mothiki Eswara and Jeevakaarthik, Dhanabalan and Miller, Clayton and Biljecki, Filip}, 
      booktitle = {IRC-SET 2021}, 
      isbn = {9789811698682}, 
      doi = {10.1007/978-981-16-9869-9_13}, 
      pages = {163--176}, 
      address = {Singapore}
    }
    

71

    3D building reconstruction from single street view images using deep learning
    Hui En Pang, Filip Biljecki
    International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 112: 102859, 2022.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2022_jag_3d_svi,
      author = {Pang, Hui En and Biljecki, Filip},
      journal = {International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation},
      title = {{3D building reconstruction from single street view images using deep learning}},
      volume = {112},
      pages = {102859},
      doi = {10.1016/j.jag.2022.102859},
      year = {2022}
    }
    

70

    Free and open source urbanism: Software for urban planning practice
    Winston Yap, Patrick Janssen, Filip Biljecki
    Computers, Environment and Urban Planning, 96: 101825, 2022.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2022_ceus_open_source_urbanism,
      author = {Yap, Winston and Janssen, Patrick and Biljecki, Filip},
      doi = {10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2022.101825},
      journal = {Computers, Environment and Urban Planning},
      pages = {101825},
      title = {{Free and open source urbanism: Software for urban planning practice}},
      volume = {96},
      year = {2022}
    }
    

69

    ifc2indoorgml: An open-source tool for generating IndoorGML from IFC
    Abdoulaye Diakite, Lucía Díaz-Vilariño, Filip Biljecki, Ümit Işıkdağ, Scott Simmons, Ki-Joune Li, Sisi Zlatanova
    Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLIII-B4-2022: 295–301, 2022.
    PDF   DOI   Code     Open access

    @article{2022_isprs_ifc2indoorgml,
     author = {Diakite, AA and Díaz-Vilariño, L and Biljecki, F and Isikdag, Ü and Simmons, S and Li, K and Zlatanova, S},
     doi = {10.5194/isprs-archives-xliii-b4-2022-295-2022},
     journal = {Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
     pages = {295--301},
     title = {ifc2indoorgml: An open-source tool for generating IndoorGML from IFC},
     volume = {XLIII-B4-2022},
     year = {2022}
    }

68

    Infrared thermography in the built environment: A multi-scale review
    Miguel Martin, Adrian Chong, Filip Biljecki, Clayton Miller
    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 165: 112540, 2022.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2022_rser_thermography_review,
      author = {Martin, Miguel and Chong, Adrian and Biljecki, Filip and Miller, Clayton},
      doi = {10.1016/j.rser.2022.112540},
      journal = {Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews},
      pages = {112540},
      title = {{Infrared thermography in the built environment: A multi-scale review}},
      volume = {165},
      year = {2022}
    }
    

67

    Global Building Morphology Indicators
    Filip Biljecki, Yoong Shin Chow
    Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 95: 101809, 2022.
    PDF   DOI   Code   Data   Website     Open access

    @article{2022_ceus_gbmi,
      author = {Biljecki, Filip and Chow, Yoong Shin},
      doi = {10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2022.101809},
      journal = {Computers, Environment and Urban Systems},
      pages = {101809},
      title = {{Global Building Morphology Indicators}},
      volume = {95},
      year = {2022}
    }
    

66

    Population estimation beyond counts—Inferring demographic characteristics
    Noée Szarka, Filip Biljecki
    PLOS ONE, 17(4): e0266484, 2022.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2022_plos_population_estimation, 
      year = {2022}, 
      title = {{Population estimation beyond counts—Inferring demographic characteristics}}, 
      author = {Szarka, Noée and Biljecki, Filip}, 
      journal = {PLOS ONE}, 
      doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0266484}, 
      pages = {e0266484}, 
      number = {4}, 
      volume = {17}
    }
    

65

    GANmapper: geographical data translation
    Abraham Noah Wu, Filip Biljecki
    International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 36(7): 1394-1422, 2022.
    PDF   DOI   Code    

    @article{2022_ijgis_ganmapper, 
      year = {2022}, 
      author = {Wu, Abraham Noah and Biljecki, Filip}, 
      title = {{GANmapper: geographical data translation}}, 
      journal = {International Journal of Geographical Information Science}, 
      volume = {36},
      issue = {7},
      pages = {1394-1422},
      doi = {10.1080/13658816.2022.2041643}
    }
    

64

    Operational characteristics of residential air conditioners with temporally granular remote thermographic imaging
    Pandarasamy Arjunan, Gregory Dobler, Kyungmin Lee, Clayton Miller, Filip Biljecki, Kameshwar Poolla
    BuildSys '21: Proceedings of the 8th ACM International Conference on Systems for Energy-Efficient Buildings, Cities, and Transportation, 184--187, 2021.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @inproceedings{2021_buildsys_acir, 
      year = {2021}, 
      author = {Arjunan, Pandarasamy and Dobler, Gregory and Lee, Kyungmin and Miller, Clayton and Biljecki, Filip and Poolla, Kameshwar}, 
      title = {{Operational characteristics of residential air conditioners with temporally granular remote thermographic imaging}}, 
      booktitle = {BuildSys '21: Proceedings of the 8th ACM International Conference on Systems for Energy-Efficient Buildings, Cities, and Transportation}, 
      isbn = {9781450391146}, 
      doi = {10.1145/3486611.3486659}, 
      pages = {184--187}, 
      series = {Proceedings of the 8th ACM International Conference on Systems for Energy-Efficient Buildings, Cities, and Transportation}
    }
    

63

    The Internet-of-Buildings (IoB) --- Digital twin convergence of wearable and IoT data with GIS/BIM
    Clayton Miller, Mahmoud Abdelrahman, Adrian Chong, Filip Biljecki, Matias Quintana, Mario Frei, Michael Chew, Daniel Wong
    Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2042(1): 012041, 2021.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2021_cisbat_iob,
      author = {Miller, Clayton and Abdelrahman, Mahmoud and Chong, Adrian and Biljecki, Filip and Quintana, Matias and Frei, Mario and Chew, Michael and Wong, Daniel},
      doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/2042/1/012041},
      journal = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
      number = {1},
      pages = {012041},
      title = {{The Internet-of-Buildings (IoB) --- Digital twin convergence of wearable and IoT data with GIS/BIM}},
      volume = {2042},
      year = {2021}
    }
    

62

    Assessing bikeability with street view imagery and computer vision
    Koichi Ito, Filip Biljecki
    Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 132: 103371, 2021.
    PDF   DOI    

    @article{2021_trc_bikeability,
      author = {Koichi Ito and Filip Biljecki},
      title = {{Assessing bikeability with street view imagery and computer vision}},
      journal = {Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies},
      volume = {132},
      pages = {103371},
      year = {2021},
      doi = {10.1016/j.trc.2021.103371},
      url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0968090X21003739}
    }
    

61

    Classification of Urban Morphology with Deep Learning: Application on Urban Vitality
    Wangyang Chen, Abraham Noah Wu, Filip Biljecki
    Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 90: 101706, 2021.
    PDF   DOI   Code    

    @article{2021_ceus_dl_morphology,
      author = {Wangyang Chen and Abraham Noah Wu and Filip Biljecki},
      doi = {10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2021.101706},
      journal = {Computers, Environment and Urban Systems},
      pages = {101706},
      title = {{Classification of Urban Morphology with Deep Learning: Application on Urban Vitality}},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2021.101706},
      volume = {90},
      year = 2021
    }
    

60

    Street view imagery in urban analytics and GIS: A review
    Filip Biljecki, Koichi Ito
    Landscape and Urban Planning, 215: 104217, 2021.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2021_land_svi_review,
      author = {Filip Biljecki and Koichi Ito},
      doi = {10.1016/j.landurbplan.2021.104217},
      journal = {Landscape and Urban Planning},
      pages = {104217},
      title = {{Street view imagery in urban analytics and GIS: A review}},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2021.104217},
      volume = {215},
      year = 2021
    }
    

59

    Roofpedia: Automatic mapping of green and solar roofs for an open roofscape registry and evaluation of urban sustainability
    Abraham Noah Wu, Filip Biljecki
    Landscape and Urban Planning, 214: 104167, 2021.
    PDF   DOI   Code   Data   Website   Press release     Open access Press release

    @article{2021_land_roofpedia,
      author = {Abraham Noah Wu and Filip Biljecki},
      doi = {10.1016/j.landurbplan.2021.104167},
      journal = {Landscape and Urban Planning},
      pages = {104167},
      title = {{Roofpedia: Automatic mapping of green and solar roofs for an open roofscape registry and evaluation of urban sustainability}},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2021.104167},
      volume = {214},
      year = 2021
    }
    

58

    Hierarchical (Multi-Label) Architectural Image Recognition and Classification
    Jielin Chen, Rudi Stouffs, Filip Biljecki
    Proceedings of the 26th International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA) 2021, 161-170, 2021.
    PDF   Data     Open access Award

    @inproceedings{2021_caadria_aida,
        author = {Chen, Jielin and Stouffs, Rudi and Biljecki, Filip},
        booktitle = {Proceedings of the 26th International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA) 2021},
        pages = {161--170},
        title = {{Hierarchical (Multi-Label) Architectural Image Recognition and Classification}},
        volume = {1},
        year = {2021}}
    

57

    3dfier: automatic reconstruction of 3D city models
    Hugo Ledoux, Filip Biljecki, Balázs Dukai, Kavisha Kumar, Ravi Peters, Jantien Stoter, Tom Commandeur
    Journal of Open Source Software, 6(57): 2866, 2021.
    PDF   DOI   Code   Website   Video     Open access

    @article{2021_joss_3dfier,
        author = {Ledoux, Hugo and Biljecki, Filip and Dukai, Bal{\'a}zs and Kumar, Kavisha and Peters, Ravi and Stoter, Jantien and Commandeur, Tom},
        doi = {10.21105/joss.02866},
        journal = {Journal of Open Source Software},
        number = {57},
        pages = {2866},
        title = {{3dfier: automatic reconstruction of 3D city models}},
        volume = {6},
        year = {2021}
    }

56

    3D city models for urban farming site identification in buildings
    Ankit Palliwal, Shuang Song, Hugh Tiang Wah Tan, Filip Biljecki
    Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 86: 101584, 2021.
    PDF   DOI   Press release     Press release

    @article{2021_ceus_3d_farming,
     author = {Palliwal, Ankit and Song, Shuang and Tan, Hugh Tiang Wah and Biljecki, Filip},
     doi = {10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2020.101584},
     journal = {Computers, Environment and Urban Systems},
     pages = {101584},
     title = {{3D city models for urban farming site identification in buildings}},
     volume = {86},
     year = {2021}
    }

55

    Reference study of IFC software support: the GeoBIM benchmark 2019---Part I
    Francesca Noardo, Thomas Krijnen, Ken Arroyo Ohori, Filip Biljecki, Claire Ellul, Lars Harrie, Helen Eriksson, Lorenzo Polia, Nebras Salheb, Helga Tauscher, Jordi van Liempt, Hendrik Goerne, Dean Hintz, Tim Kaiser, Cristina Leoni, Artur Warchol, Jantien Stoter
    Transactions in GIS, 25(2): 805-841, 2021.
    PDF   DOI   Data     Open access

    @article{2021_tgis_geobim_ifc,
        author = {Noardo, Francesca and Krijnen, Thomas and Ohori, Ken Arroyo and Biljecki, Filip and Ellul, Claire and Harrie, Lars and Eriksson, Helen and Polia, Lorenzo and Salheb, Nebras and Tauscher, Helga and Liempt, Jordi and Goerne, Hendrik and Hintz, Dean and Kaiser, Tim and Leoni, Cristina and Warchol, Artur and Stoter, Jantien},
        doi = {10.1111/tgis.12709},
        journal = {Transactions in GIS},
        volume = {25},
        pages = {805-841},
        issue = {2},
        title = {{Reference study of IFC software support: The GeoBIM benchmark 2019---Part I}},
        year = {2021}
    }

54

    Reference study of CityGML software support: the GeoBIM benchmark 2019---Part II
    Francesca Noardo, Ken Arroyo Ohori, Filip Biljecki, Claire Ellul, Lars Harrie, Thomas Krijnen, Helen Eriksson, Jordi van Liempt, Maria Pla, Antonio Ruiz, Dean Hintz, Nina Krueger, Cristina Leoni, Leire Leoz, Diana Moraru, Stelios Vitalis, Philipp Willkomm, Jantien Stoter
    Transactions in GIS, 25(2): 842-868, 2021.
    PDF   DOI   Data     Open access

    @article{2021_tgis_geobim_citygml,
        author = {Noardo, Francesca and Ohori, Ken Arroyo and Biljecki, Filip and Ellul, Claire and Harrie, Lars and Krijnen, Thomas and Eriksson, Helen and Liempt, Jordi van and Pla, Maria and Ruiz, Antonio and Hintz, Dean and Krueger, Nina and Leoni, Cristina and Leoz, Leire and Moraru, Diana and Vitalis, Stelios and Willkomm, Philipp and Stoter, Jantien},
        doi = {10.1111/tgis.12710},
        journal = {Transactions in GIS},
        volume = {25},
        issue = {2},
        pages = {842-868},
        title = {{Reference study of CityGML software support: The GeoBIM benchmark 2019---Part II}},
        year = {2021}
    }

53

    Extending CityGML for IFC-sourced 3D city models
    Filip Biljecki, Joie Lim, James Crawford, Diana Moraru, Helga Tauscher, Amol Konde, Kamel Adouane, Simon Lawrence, Patrick Janssen, Rudi Stouffs
    Automation in Construction, 121: 103440, 2021.
    PDF   DOI    

    @article{2021_autcon_ifc_citygml_ade, 
      title = {{Extending CityGML for IFC-sourced 3D city models}}, 
      author = {Biljecki, Filip and Lim, Joie and Crawford, James and Moraru, Diana and Tauscher, Helga and Konde, Amol and Adouane, Kamel and Lawrence, Simon and Janssen, Patrick and Stouffs, Rudi}, 
      journal = {Automation in Construction}, 
      doi = {10.1016/j.autcon.2020.103440}, 
      pages = {103440}, 
      volume = {121}, 
      year = {2021}
    }

52

    Tools for BIM-GIS Integration (IFC Georeferencing and Conversions): Results from the GeoBIM Benchmark 2019
    Francesca Noardo, Lars Harrie, Ken Arroyo Ohori, Filip Biljecki, Claire Ellul, Thomas Krijnen, Helen Eriksson, Dogus Guler, Dean Hintz, Mojgan A Jadidi, Maria Pla, Santi Sanchez, Ville-Pekka Soini, Rudi Stouffs, Jernej Tekavec, Jantien Stoter
    ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 9(9): 502, 2020.
    PDF   DOI   Data     Open access Cover story

    @article{2020_ijgi_geobim_integration,
     author = {Noardo, Francesca and Harrie, Lars and Ohori, Ken Arroyo and Biljecki, Filip and Ellul, Claire and Krijnen, Thomas and Eriksson, Helen and Guler, Dogus and Hintz, Dean and Jadidi, Mojgan A and Pla, Maria and Sanchez, Santi and Soini, Ville-Pekka and Stouffs, Rudi and Tekavec, Jernej and Stoter, Jantien},
     doi = {10.3390/ijgi9090502},
     journal = {ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information},
     number = {9},
     pages = {502},
     title = {{Tools for BIM-GIS Integration (IFC Georeferencing and Conversions): Results from the GeoBIM Benchmark 2019}},
     volume = {9},
     year = {2020}
    }

51

    Exploration of open data in Southeast Asia to generate 3D building models
    Filip Biljecki
    ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, VI-4/W1-2020: 37-44, 2020.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2020_3dgeoinfo_3d_asean,
     author = {Biljecki, F},
     doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-vi-4-w1-2020-37-2020},
     journal = {ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences},
     pages = {37--44},
     title = {{Exploration of open data in Southeast Asia to generate 3D building models}},
     volume = {VI-4/W1-2020},
     year = {2020}
    }

50

    Visualising detailed CityGML and ADE at the building scale
    Joie Lim, Patrick Janssen, Filip Biljecki
    Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLIV-4/W1-2020: 83-90, 2020.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2020_3dgeoinfo_ade_visualisation,
     author = {Lim, J and Janssen, P and Biljecki, F},
     doi = {10.5194/isprs-archives-xliv-4-w1-2020-83-2020},
     journal = {Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
     pages = {83--90},
     title = {{Visualising detailed CityGML and ADE at the building scale}},
     volume = {XLIV-4/W1-2020},
     year = {2020}
    }

49

    The ISPRS-EuroSDR GeoBIM benchmark 2019
    Francesca Noardo, Ken Arroyo Ohori, Filip Biljecki, Claire Ellul, Lars Harrie, Thomas Krijnen, Margarita Kokla, Jantien Stoter
    Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLIII-B5-2020: 227--233, 2020.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2020_isprs_geobim,
     author = {Noardo, F and Arroyo Ohori, K and Biljecki, F and Ellul, C and Harrie, L and Krijnen, T and Kokla, M and Stoter, J},
     doi = {10.5194/isprs-archives-xliii-b5-2020-227-2020},
     journal = {Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
     pages = {227--233},
     title = {{The ISPRS-EuroSDR GeoBIM benchmark 2019}},
     volume = {XLIII-B5-2020},
     year = {2020}
    }

48

    Assessing global OpenStreetMap building completeness to generate large-scale 3D city models
    Filip Biljecki, Ang Li Min
    Proceedings of the Academic Track at the State of the Map 2020, 5-6, 2020.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @inproceedings{2020_sotm_3d,
        Author = {Biljecki, Filip and Ang, Li Min},
        Booktitle = {Proceedings of the Academic Track at the State of the Map 2020},
        Doi = {10.5281/zenodo.3922285},
        Month = jul,
        Pages = {5-6},
        Publisher = {Zenodo},
        Title = {{Assessing global OpenStreetMap building completeness to generate large-scale 3D city models}},
        Url = {https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3922285},
        Year = 2020}

47

    How might an LoD Logic Framework Help to Bridge the 3D Cadastre Research-to-Practice Gap? A Proposal for a Level of Implementation Framework
    Jantien Stoter, Filip Biljecki, Serene Ho
    Proceedings of the FIG Working Week 2020, 1-13, 2020.
    PDF     Open access

    @inproceedings{2020_fig_lod,
     address = {Amsterdam, the Netherlands},
     author = {Stoter, Jantien and Biljecki, Filip and Ho, Serene},
     booktitle = {FIG Working Week 2020},
     pages = {1--13},
     title = {{How might an LoD Logic Framework Help to Bridge the 3D Cadastre Research-to-Practice Gap? A Proposal for a Level of Implementation Framework}},
     year = {2020}
    }

46

    An application-driven LOD modeling paradigm for 3D building models
    Lei Tang, Shen Ying, Lin Li, Filip Biljecki, HaiHong Zhu, Yi Zhu, Fan Yang, Fei Su
    ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 161: 194-207, 2020.
    PDF   DOI  

    @article{2020_ijprs_application_lod,
        author = {Tang, Lei and Ying, Shen and Li, Lin and Biljecki, Filip and Zhu, HaiHong and Zhu, Yi and Yang, Fan and Su, Fei},
        title = {{An application-driven LOD modeling paradigm for 3D building models}},
        journal = {ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing},
        year = {2020},
        volume = {161},
        pages = {194--207},
        doi = {10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2020.01.019}
    }

45

    The implementation of big data analysis in regulating online short-term rental business: a case of Airbnb in Beijing
    Jialin Li, Filip Biljecki
    ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-4/W9: 79-86, 2019.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2019_sdsc_airbnb_beijing,
        author = {Li, Jialin and Biljecki, Filip},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-IV-4-W9-79-2019},
        journal = {ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        pages = {79--86},
        title = {{The implementation of big data analysis in regulating online short-term rental business: a case of Airbnb in Beijing}},
        volume = {IV-4/W9},
        year = {2019}
    }
    

44

    Raise the roof: towards generating LoD2 models without aerial surveys using machine learning
    Filip Biljecki, Youness Dehbi
    ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-4/W8: 27-34, 2019.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2019_inferring_roof_type,
        author = {Biljecki, F and Dehbi, Y},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-IV-4-W8-27-2019},
        journal = {ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        pages = {27--34},
        title = {{Raise the roof: towards generating LoD2 models without aerial surveys using machine learning}},
        volume = {IV-4/W8},
        year = {2019}
    }
    

43

    Graph transformation rules for IFC-to-CityGML attribute conversion
    Joie Lim, Helga Tauscher, Filip Biljecki
    ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-4/W8: 83-90, 2019.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2019_graph_transformation_rules_ifc_citygml,
        author = {Lim, J and Tauscher, H and Biljecki, F},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-IV-4-W8-83-2019},
        journal = {ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        pages = {83--90},
        title = {{Graph transformation rules for IFC-to-CityGML attribute conversion}},
        volume = {IV-4/W8},
        year = {2019}
    }
    

42

    GeoBIM benchmark 2019: intermediate results
    Francesca Noardo, Filip Biljecki, Giorgio Agugiaro, Ken Arroyo Ohori, Claire Ellul, Lars Harrie, Jantien Stoter
    Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-4/W15: 47-52, 2019.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2019_geobim_intermediate,
        author = {Noardo, F and Biljecki, F and Agugiaro, G and Arroyo Ohori, K and Ellul, C and Harrie, L and Stoter, J},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-4-W15-47-2019},
        journal = {Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        pages = {47--52},
        title = {{GeoBIM benchmark 2019: intermediate results}},
        volume = {XLII-4/W15},
        year = {2019}
    }
    

41

    Considerations for a contemporary 3D cadastre for our times
    Jantien Stoter, Serene Ho, Filip Biljecki
    Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-4/W15: 81-88, 2019.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2019_considerations_3d_cadastre,
        author = {Stoter, J and Ho, S and Biljecki, F},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-4-W15-81-2019},
        journal = {Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        pages = {81--88},
        title = {{Considerations for a contemporary 3D cadastre for our times}},
        volume = {XLII-4/W15},
        year = {2019}
    }
    

40

    Quality of BIM-GIS conversion
    Filip Biljecki, Helga Tauscher
    ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-4/W8: 35-42, 2019.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2019_bim_gis_quality,
        author = {Biljecki, F and Tauscher, H},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-IV-4-W8-35-2019},
        journal = {ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        pages = {35--42},
        title = {{Quality of BIM--GIS conversion}},
        volume = {IV-4/W8},
        year = {2019}
    }
    

39

    GeoBIM benchmark 2019: design and initial results
    Francesca Noardo, Ken Arroyo Ohori, Filip Biljecki, Thomas Krijnen, Claire Ellul, Lars Harrie, Jantien Stoter
    Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2-W13: 1339-1346, 2019.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2019_gsw_geobim_benchmark,
        author = {Noardo, F and Arroyo Ohori, K and Biljecki, F and Krijnen, T and Ellul, C and Harrie, L and Stoter, J},
        title = {{GeoBIM benchmark 2019: design and initial results}},
        journal = {Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        year = {2019},
        volume = {XLII-2-W13},
        pages = {1339--1346},
        month = jun,
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W13-1339-2019}
    }

38

    Linking Persistent Scatterers to the Built Environment using Ray-Tracing on Urban Models
    Mengshi Yang, Paco López-Dekker, Prabu Dheenathayalan, Filip Biljecki, Mingsheng Liao, Ramon F. Hanssen
    IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 57(8): 5764-5776, 2019.
    PDF   DOI  

    @article{2019_tgrs_ps3d,
        author = {Yang, Mengshi and López-Dekker, Paco and Dheenathayalan, Prabu and Biljecki, Filip and Liao, Mingsheng and Hanssen, Ramon F.},
        title = {{Linking Persistent Scatterers to the Built Environment using Ray-Tracing on Urban Models}},
        journal = {IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing},
        year = {2019},
        volume = {57},
        number = {8},
        pages = {5764--5776},
        doi = {10.1109/TGRS.2019.2901904}
    }

37

    Achieving Complete and Near-Lossless Conversion from IFC to CityGML
    Rudi Stouffs, Helga Tauscher, Filip Biljecki
    ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 7(9): 355, 2018.
    PDF   DOI     Open access  

    @article{2018_ijgi_ifc2citygml,
        author = {Stouffs, Rudi and Tauscher, Helga and Biljecki, Filip},
        title = {{Achieving Complete and Near-Lossless Conversion from IFC to CityGML}},
        journal = {ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information},
        year = {2018},
        volume = {7},
        number = {9},
        pages = {355},
        doi = {10.3390/ijgi7090355}
    }

36

    CityGML Application Domain Extension (ADE): overview of developments
    Filip Biljecki, Kavisha Kumar, Claus Nagel
    Open Geospatial Data, Software and Standards, 3: 13, 2018.
    PDF   DOI     Open access  

    @article{2018_ogdss_ade,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Kumar, Kavisha and Nagel, Claus},
        title = {{CityGML Application Domain Extension (ADE): overview of developments}},
        journal = {Open Geospatial Data, Software and Standards},
        year = {2018},
        volume = {3},
        number = {1},
        pages = {13},
        doi = {10.1186/s40965-018-0055-6}
    }
    

35

    The effect of acquisition error and level of detail on the accuracy of spatial analyses
    Filip Biljecki, Gerard Heuvelink, Hugo Ledoux, Jantien Stoter
    Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 45(2): 156-176, 2018.
    PDF   DOI     Open access  

    @article{2018_cagis_lod_error_propagation,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Heuvelink, Gerard B M and Ledoux, Hugo and Stoter, Jantien},
        title = {{The effect of acquisition error and level of detail on the accuracy of spatial analyses}},
        journal = {Cartography and Geographic Information Science},
        year = {2018},
        volume = {45},
        number = {2},
        pages = {156--176},
        doi = {10.1080/15230406.2017.1279986}
    }

34

    Floor plans in CityGML
    Amol Konde, Helga Tauscher, Filip Biljecki, James Crawford
    ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-4/W6: 25-32, 2018.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2018_floor_plans_citygml,
        author = {Konde, Amol and Tauscher, Helga and Biljecki, Filip and Crawford, James},
        title = {{Floor plans in CityGML}},
        journal = {ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        year = {2018},
        volume = {IV-4/W6},
        pages = {25--32},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-IV-4-W6-25-2018}
    }

33

    A sliding window method for detecting corners of openings from terrestrial lidar data
    Jiaqiang Li, Biao Xiong, Filip Biljecki, Gerhard Schrotter
    Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-4/W10: 97-103, 2018.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2018_sliding_window,
        author = {Li, Jiaqiang and Xiong, Biao and Biljecki, Filip and Schrotter, Gerhard},
        title = {{A sliding window method for detecting corners of openings from terrestrial lidar data}},
        journal = {Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        year = {2018},
        volume = {XLII-4/W10},
        pages = {97--103},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-4-W10-97-2018}
    }

32

    Modeling Cities and Landscapes in 3D with CityGML
    Ken Arroyo Ohori, Filip Biljecki, Kavisha Kumar, Hugo Ledoux, Jantien Stoter
    Building Information Modeling, André Borrmann, Markus König, Christian Koch, Jakob Beetz (eds.), pp. 199-215, 2018.
    PDF   DOI  

    @incollection{2018_CityGML_BIM_modeling,
        author = {Arroyo Ohori, Ken and Biljecki, Filip and Kumar, Kavisha and Ledoux, Hugo and Stoter, Jantien},
        title = {{Modeling Cities and Landscapes in 3D with CityGML}},
        booktitle = {Building Information Modeling},
        year = {2018},
        pages = {199--215},
        publisher = {Springer, Cham},
        address = {Cham},
        doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-92862-3_11}
    }

31

    Does a finer level of detail of a 3D city model bring an improvement for estimating shadows?
    Filip Biljecki, Hugo Ledoux, Jantien Stoter
    Advances in 3D Geoinformation, Alias Abdul-Rahman (ed.), pp. 31-47, 2017.
    PDF   DOI  

    @incollection{2017_3dgeoinfo_shadows,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Ledoux, Hugo and Stoter, Jantien},
        title = {{Does a Finer Level of Detail of a 3D City Model Bring an Improvement for Estimating Shadows?}},
        booktitle = {Advances in 3D Geoinformation},
        year = {2017},
        pages = {31--47},
        publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
        address = {Cham},
        doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-25691-7_2}
    }

30

    The VI-Suite: a set of environmental analysis tools with geospatial data applications
    Ryan Southall, Filip Biljecki
    Open Geospatial Data, Software and Standards, 2: 23, 2017.
    PDF   DOI     Code   Open access  

    @article{2017_ogdss_visuite,
        author = {Southall, Ryan and Biljecki, Filip},
        title = {{The VI-Suite: a set of environmental analysis tools with geospatial data applications}},
        journal = {Open Geospatial Data, Software and Standards},
        year = {2017},
        volume = {2},
        pages = {23},
        doi = {10.1186/s40965-017-0036-1}
    }

29

    Registration of Multi-Level Property Rights in 3D in The Netherlands: Two Cases and Next Steps in Further Implementation
    Jantien Stoter, Hendrik Ploeger, Ruben Roes, Els van der Riet, Filip Biljecki, Hugo Ledoux, Dirco Kok, Sangmin Kim
    ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 6(6): 158, 2017.
    PDF   DOI     Open access Cover story

    @article{2017_ijgi_3d_cadastre,
        author = {Stoter, Jantien and Ploeger, Hendrik and Roes, Ruben and van der Riet, Els and Biljecki, Filip and Ledoux, Hugo and Kok, Dirco and Kim, Sangmin},
        title = {{Registration of Multi-Level Property Rights in 3D in The Netherlands: Two Cases and Next Steps in Further Implementation}},
        journal = {ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information},
        year = {2017},
        volume = {6},
        number = {6},
        pages = {158},
        doi = {10.3390/ijgi6060158}
    }

28

    Estimating building age with 3D GIS
    Filip Biljecki, Maximilian Sindram
    ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-4-W5: 17-24, 2017.
    PDF   DOI     Open access Best paper award

    @article{2017_3dgeoinfo_building_age_estimation,
        author = {Biljecki, F and Sindram, M},
        title = {{Estimating building age with 3D GIS}},
        journal = {ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        year = {2017},
        volume = {IV-4-W5},
        pages = {17--24},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-IV-4-W5-17-2017}
    }

27

    Generating 3D city models without elevation data
    Filip Biljecki, Hugo Ledoux, Jantien Stoter
    Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 64: 1-18, 2017.
    PDF   DOI  

    @article{2017_ceus_inferring_heights,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Ledoux, Hugo and Stoter, Jantien},
        title = {{Generating 3D city models without elevation data}},
        journal = {Computers, Environment and Urban Systems},
        year = {2017},
        volume = {64},
        pages = {1--18},
        doi = {10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2017.01.001}
    }

26

    Towards an integration of GIS and BIM data: what are the geometric and topological issues?
    Ken Arroyo Ohori, Filip Biljecki, Abdoulaye Diakité, Thomas Krijnen, Hugo Ledoux, Jantien Stoter
    ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-4-W5: 1-8, 2017.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2017_3dgeoinfo_bim_gis_integration,
        author = {Arroyo Ohori, K and Biljecki, F and Diakit{\'e}, A and Krijnen, T and Ledoux, H and Stoter, J},
        title = {{Towards an integration of GIS and BIM data: what are the geometric and topological issues?}},
        journal = {ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        year = {2017},
        volume = {IV-4-W5},
        pages = {1--8},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-IV-4-W5-1-2017}
    }

25

    First registration of multi-level ownership rights in 3D in the Netherlands
    Jantien Stoter, Hendrik Ploeger, Ruben Roes, Els van der Riet, Filip Biljecki, Hugo Ledoux
    5th International FIG Workshop on 3D Cadastres, 491-504, 2016.
    PDF     News   Open access

    @inproceedings{2016_3dcadastres_delft_station,
        author = {Stoter, Jantien and Ploeger, Hendrik and Roes, Ruben and van der Riet, Els and Biljecki, Filip and Ledoux, Hugo},
        title = {{First 3D Cadastral Registration of Multi-level Ownerships Rights in the Netherlands}},
        booktitle = {5th International FIG Workshop on 3D Cadastres},
        year = {2016},
        pages = {491--504},
        address = {Athens, Greece}
    }

24

    Population estimation using a 3D city model: a multi-scale country-wide study in the Netherlands
    Filip Biljecki, Ken Arroyo Ohori, Hugo Ledoux, Ravi Peters, Jantien Stoter
    PLOS ONE, 11(6): e0156808, 2016.
    PDF   DOI     Code   Data   Video   Open access

    @article{2016_plosone_population,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Arroyo Ohori, Ken and Ledoux, Hugo and Peters, Ravi and Stoter, Jantien},
        title = {{Population Estimation Using a 3D City Model: A Multi-Scale Country-Wide Study in the Netherlands}},
        journal = {PLOS ONE},
        year = {2016},
        volume = {11},
        number = {6},
        pages = {e0156808},
        doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0156808}
    }

23

    Towards automatic semantic labelling of 3D city models
    Merwin Rook, Filip Biljecki, Abdoulaye Diakité
    ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-2/W1: 23-30, 2016.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2016_3dgeoinfo_semantic_classification,
        author = {Rook, M and Biljecki, F and Diakit{\'e}, A A},
        title = {{Towards automatic semantic labelling of 3D city models}},
        journal = {ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        year = {2016},
        volume = {IV-2/W1},
        pages = {23--30},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-IV-2-W1-23-2016}
    }

22

    The most common geometric and semantic errors in CityGML datasets
    Filip Biljecki, Hugo Ledoux, Xin DU, Jantien Stoter, Kean Huat SOON, Victor KHOO
    ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-2/W1: 13-22, 2016.
    PDF   DOI     Code   Open access

    @article{2016_3dgeoinfo_citygml_errors,
        author = {Biljecki, F and Ledoux, H and Du, X and Stoter, J and Soon, K H and Khoo, V H S},
        title = {{The most common geometric and semantic errors in CityGML datasets}},
        journal = {ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        year = {2016},
        volume = {IV-2/W1},
        pages = {13--22},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-IV-2-W1-13-2016}
    }

21

    Proposal for a new LOD and multi-representation concept for CityGML
    Marc-Oliver Löwner, Gerhard Gröger, Joachim Benner, Filip Biljecki, Claus Nagel
    ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-2/W1: 3-12, 2016.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2016_3dgeoinfo_lod_proposal,
        author = {L{\"o}wner, M O and Gr{\"o}ger, G and Benner, J and Biljecki, F and Nagel, C},
        title = {{Proposal for a new LOD and multi-representation concept for CityGML}},
        journal = {ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        year = {2016},
        volume = {IV-2/W1},
        pages = {3--12},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-IV-2-W1-3-2016}
    }

20

    Generation of multi-LOD 3D city models in CityGML with the procedural modelling engine Random3Dcity
    Filip Biljecki, Hugo Ledoux, Jantien Stoter
    ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-4/W1: 51-59, 2016.
    PDF   DOI     Code   Video   Data   Open access

    @article{2016_udms_random3dcity,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Ledoux, Hugo and Stoter, Jantien},
        title = {{Generation of multi-LOD 3D city models in CityGML with the procedural modelling engine Random3Dcity}},
        journal = {ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        vol = {IV-4/W1},
        pages = {51--59},
        year = {2016},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-IV-4-W1-51-2016}
    }

19

    An improved LOD specification for 3D building models
    Filip Biljecki, Hugo Ledoux, Jantien Stoter
    Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 59: 25-37, 2016.
    PDF   DOI     Code   Video   Data

    @article{2016_ceus_improved_lod,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Ledoux, Hugo and Stoter, Jantien},
        title = {{An improved LOD specification for 3D building models}},
        journal = {Computers, Environment and Urban Systems},
        year = {2016},
        volume = {59},
        pages = {25--37},
        doi = {10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2016.04.005}
    }

18

    The variants of an LOD of a 3D building model and their influence on spatial analyses
    Filip Biljecki, Hugo Ledoux, Jantien Stoter, George Vosselman
    ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 116: 42-54, 2016.
    PDF   DOI  

    @article{2016_isprs_geometric_references,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Ledoux, Hugo and Stoter, Jantien and Vosselman, George},
        title = {{The variants of an LOD of a 3D building model and their influence on spatial analyses}},
        journal = {ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing},
        year = {2016},
        volume = {116},
        pages = {42--54},
        doi = {10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2016.03.003}
    }

17

    A scientometric analysis of selected GIScience journals
    Filip Biljecki
    International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 30(7): 1302-1335, 2016.
    PDF   DOI     Journals   Open access

    @article{2016_ijgis_scientometrics,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip},
        title = {{A scientometric analysis of selected GIScience journals}},
        journal = {International Journal of Geographical Information Science},
        year = {2016},
        volume = {30},
        number = {7},
        pages = {1302--1335},
        doi = {10.1080/13658816.2015.1130831}
    }

16

    Automatic update of road attributes by mining GPS tracks
    Karl van Winden, Filip Biljecki, Stefan van der Spek
    Transactions in GIS, 20(5): 664-683, 2016.
    PDF   DOI  

    @article{2016_tgis_automatic_road_update,
        author = {van Winden, Karl and Biljecki, Filip and van der Spek, Stefan},
        title = {{Automatic update of road attributes by mining GPS tracks}},
        journal = {Transactions in GIS},
        volume = {20},
        number = {5},
        pages = {664--683},
        year = {2016},
        doi = {10.1111/tgis.12186}
    }

15

    Towards sustainable and clean 3D Geoinformation
    Jantien Stoter, Hugo Ledoux, Sisi Zlatanova, Filip Biljecki
    Geoinformationssysteme 2016: Beiträge zur 3. Münchner GI-Runde, T. H. Kolbe et al. (eds.), pp. 110-113, 2016.
    PDF    

    @incollection{2016_mgir_suistanable_3d,
        author = {Stoter, Jantien and Ledoux, Hugo and Zlatanova, Sisi and Biljecki, Filip},
        title = {{Towards sustainable and clean 3D Geoinformation}},
        booktitle = {Geoinformationssysteme 2016: Beitr{\"a}ge zur 3. M{\"u}nchner GI-Runde},
        year = {2016},
        editor = {Kolbe, Thomas H and Bill, Ralf and Donaubauer, Andreas},
        pages = {100--113},
        address = {Munich, Germany},
        month = feb,
        publisher = {Wichmann Herbert}
    }

14

    Applications of 3D city models: state of the art review
    Filip Biljecki, Jantien Stoter, Hugo Ledoux, Sisi Zlatanova, Arzu Çöltekin
    ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 4(4): 2842-2889, 2015.
    PDF   DOI     Open access #1 cited paper in the journal

    @article{2015_ijgi_3d_applications,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Stoter, Jantien and Ledoux, Hugo and Zlatanova, Sisi and {\c C}{\"o}ltekin, Arzu},
        title = {{Applications of 3D City Models: State of the Art Review}},
        journal = {ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information},
        year = {2015},
        volume = {4},
        number = {4},
        pages = {2842--2889},
        month = dec,
        doi = {10.3390/ijgi4042842}
    }

13

    Propagation of positional error in 3D GIS: estimation of the solar irradiation of building roofs
    Filip Biljecki, Gerard Heuvelink, Hugo Ledoux, Jantien Stoter
    International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 29(12): 2269-2294, 2015.
    PDF   DOI     Code   Video   Award

    @article{2015_ijgis_3dgis_error_propagation,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Heuvelink, Gerard B M and Ledoux, Hugo and Stoter, Jantien},
        title = {{Propagation of positional error in 3D GIS: estimation of the solar irradiation of building roofs}},
        journal = {International Journal of Geographical Information Science},
        year = {2015},
        volume = {29},
        number = {12},
        pages = {2269--2294},
        month = dec,
        doi = {10.1080/13658816.2015.1073292}
    }

12

    Automatically enhancing CityGML LOD2 models with a corresponding indoor geometry
    Roeland Boeters, Ken Arroyo Ohori, Filip Biljecki, Sisi Zlatanova
    International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 29(12): 2248-2268, 2015.
    PDF   DOI     Code

    @article{2015_ijgis_citygml_lod2,
        author = {Boeters, Roeland and Arroyo Ohori, Ken and Biljecki, Filip and Zlatanova, Sisi},
        title = {{Automatically enhancing CityGML LOD2 models with a corresponding indoor geometry}},
        journal = {International Journal of Geographical Information Science},
        year = {2015},
        volume = {29},
        number = {12},
        pages = {2248--2268},
        month = dec,
        doi = {10.1080/13658816.2015.1072201}
    }

11

    Improving the consistency of multi-LOD CityGML datasets by removing redundancy
    Filip Biljecki, Hugo Ledoux, Jantien Stoter
    3D Geoinformation Science, 1-17, 2015.
    PDF   DOI     Timelapse

    @incollection{2015_3dgeoinfo_citygml_consistency,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Ledoux, Hugo and Stoter, Jantien},
        title = {{Improving the Consistency of Multi-LOD CityGML Datasets by Removing Redundancy}},
        booktitle = {3D Geoinformation Science},
        year = {2015},
        editor = {Breunig, Martin and Mulhim, Al-Doori and Butwilowski, Edgar and Kuper, Paul Vincent and Benner, Joachim and H{\"a}fele, Karl-Heinz},
        pages = {1--17},
        publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
        doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-12181-9_1}
    }

10

    Modeling a 3D city model and its levels of detail as a true 4D model
    Ken Arroyo Ohori, Hugo Ledoux, Filip Biljecki, Jantien Stoter
    ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 4(3): 1055-1075, 2015.
    PDF   DOI     Code   Open access

    @article{2015_ijgi_4d_model,
        author = {Arroyo Ohori, Ken and Ledoux, Hugo and Biljecki, Filip and Stoter, Jantien},
        title = {{Modeling a 3D City Model and Its Levels of Detail as a True 4D Model}},
        journal = {ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information},
        year = {2015},
        volume = {4},
        number = {3},
        pages = {1055--1075},
        month = jul,
        doi = {10.3390/ijgi4031055}
    }

09

    Automatic semantic-preserving conversion between OBJ and CityGML
    Filip Biljecki, Ken Arroyo Ohori
    Eurographics Workshop on Urban Data Modelling and Visualisation, 25-30, 2015.
    PDF   DOI     Code  

    @inproceedings{2015_udmv_citygml_obj,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Arroyo Ohori, Ken},
        title = {{Automatic Semantic-preserving Conversion Between OBJ and CityGML}},
        booktitle = {Eurographics Workshop on Urban Data Modelling and Visualisation 2015},
        year = {2015},
        pages = {25--30},
        address = {Delft, Netherlands},
        doi = {10.2312/udmv.20151345},
        month = nov
    }

08

    Visibility analysis in a point cloud based on the medial axis transform
    Ravi Peters, Hugo Ledoux, Filip Biljecki
    Eurographics Workshop on Urban Data Modelling and Visualisation, 7-12, 2015.
    PDF   DOI    

    @inproceedings{2015_udmv_lidar_visibility,
        author = {Peters, Ravi and Ledoux, Hugo and Biljecki, Filip},
        title = {{Visibility Analysis in a Point Cloud Based on the Medial Axis Transform}},
        booktitle = {Eurographics Workshop on Urban Data Modelling and Visualisation 2015},
        year = {2015},
        pages = {7--12},
        address = {Delft, Netherlands},
        doi = {10.2312/udmv.20151342},
        month = nov
    }

07

    Installed base registration of decentralised solar panels with applications in crisis management
    Rosann Aarsen, Milo Janssen, Myron Ramkisoen, Filip Biljecki, Wilko Quak, Edward Verbree
    Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XL-3/W3: 219-223, 2015.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2015_gi4dm_pv_database,
        author = {Aarsen, R and Janssen, M and Ramkisoen, M and Biljecki, F and Quak, W and Verbree, E},
        title = {{Installed base registration of decentralised solar panels with applications in crisis management}},
        journal = {Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        year = {2015},
        volume = {XL-3/W3},
        pages = {219--223},
        doi = {10.5194/isprsarchives-XL-3-W3-219-2015}
    }

06

    Formalisation of the level of detail in 3D city modelling
    Filip Biljecki, Hugo Ledoux, Jantien Stoter, Junqiao Zhao
    Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 48: 1-15, 2014.
    PDF   DOI  

    @article{2014_ceus_lod_formalisation,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Ledoux, Hugo and Stoter, Jantien and Zhao, Junqiao},
        title = {{Formalisation of the level of detail in 3D city modelling}},
        journal = {Computers, Environment and Urban Systems},
        year = {2014},
        volume = {48},
        pages = {1--15},
        month = nov,
        doi = {10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2014.05.004}
    }

05

    Height references of CityGML LOD1 buildings and their influence on applications
    Filip Biljecki, Hugo Ledoux, Jantien Stoter
    Proceedings of the 9th 3D GeoInfo Conference, 2014.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @inproceedings{2014_3dgeoinfo_lod1_references,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Ledoux, Hugo and Stoter, Jantien},
        title = {{Height references of CityGML LOD1 buildings and their influence on applications}},
        booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th 3D GeoInfo Conference 2014},
        year = {2014},
        editor = {Breunig, Martin and Mulhim, Al-Doori and Butwilowski, Edgar and Kuper, Paul Vincent and Benner, Joachim and H{\"a}fele, Karl-Heinz},
        address = {Dubai, UAE},
        month = nov,
        doi = {10.4233/uuid:09d030b5-67d3-467b-babb-5e5ec10f1b38}
    }

04

    Error propagation in the computation of volumes in 3D city models with the Monte Carlo method
    Filip Biljecki, Hugo Ledoux, Jantien Stoter
    ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., II-2: 31-39, 2014.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2014_sdh_error_propagation,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Ledoux, Hugo and Stoter, Jantien},
        title = {{Error propagation in the computation of volumes in 3D city models with the Monte Carlo method}},
        journal = {ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        year = {2014},
        volume = {II-2},
        pages = {31--39},
        month = oct,
        doi = {10.5194/isprsannals-II-2-31-2014}
    }

03

    Revisiting the concept of level of detail in 3D city modelling
    Filip Biljecki, Junqiao Zhao, Jantien Stoter, Hugo Ledoux
    ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., II-2/W1: 63-74, 2013.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2013_3dgeoinfo_revisiting_lod,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Zhao, Junqiao and Stoter, Jantien and Ledoux, Hugo},
        title = {{Revisiting the concept of level of detail in 3D city modelling}},
        journal = {ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        year = {2013},
        volume = {II-2/W1},
        pages = {63--74},
        month = nov,
        doi = {10.5194/isprsannals-II-2-W1-63-2013}
    }

02

    Manipulating higher dimensional spatial information
    Ken Arroyo Ohori, Filip Biljecki, Jantien Stoter, Hugo Ledoux
    Proceedings of the 16th AGILE International Conference on Geographic Information Science, 2013.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @inproceedings{2013_agile_nd_geoinformation,
        author = {Arroyo Ohori, Ken and Biljecki, Filip and Stoter, Jantien and Ledoux, Hugo},
        title = {{Manipulating higher dimensional spatial information}},
        booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science},
        year = {2013},
        editor = {Vandenbroucke, D and Bucher, B and Crompvoets, J},
        pages = {1--7},
        address = {Leuven, Belgium},
        month = may,
        doi = {10.4233/uuid:c4751ad5-e008-48a6-806b-af38099e0b3a}
    }

01

    Transportation mode-based segmentation and classification of movement trajectories
    Filip Biljecki, Hugo Ledoux, Peter van Oosterom
    International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 27(2): 385-407, 2013.
    PDF   DOI  

    @article{2013_ijgis_transportation_mode,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Ledoux, Hugo and van Oosterom, Peter},
        title = {{Transportation mode-based segmentation and classification of movement trajectories}},
        journal = {International Journal of Geographical Information Science},
        year = {2013},
        volume = {27},
        number = {2},
        pages = {385--407},
        month = feb,
        doi = {10.1080/13658816.2012.692791}
    }

Other scholarly work: editorials, reports, professional publications, ...

13

    Preface: Workshop "GeoHB 2023: Geo-Spatial Computing for Understanding Human Behaviours"
    Wei Huang, Bi Yu Chen, Filip Biljecki, Yingwei Yan, Yair Grinberger, Hao Li
    ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, X-1/W1-2023, 1157-1158, 2023.
    PDF   DOI  

    @article{2023_gw_preface,
        author = {Huang, W. and Chen, B. Y. and Biljecki, F. and Yan, Y. and Grinberger, Y. and Li, H.},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-x-1-w1-2023-1157-2023},
        journal = {ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences},
        pages = {1157--1158},
        title = {Preface: Workshop ``GeoHB 2023: Geo-Spatial Computing for Understanding Human Behaviours''},
        volume = {X-1/W1-2023},
        year = {2023}
    }

12

    Uncovering the challenges of urban digital twins
    Binyu Lei, Patrick Janssen, Jantien Stoter, Filip Biljecki
    GIM International, 37(4): 18-21, 2023.
    PDF  

    @article{2023_gim_dt_challenges, 
    year = {2023}, 
    title = {{Uncovering the challenges of urban digital twins}}, 
    author = {Lei, Binyu and Janssen, Patrick and Stoter, Jantien and Biljecki, Filip}, 
    journal = {GIM International}, 
    pages = {18--21}, 
    number = {4}, 
    volume = {37}
    }

11

    Emerging topics in 3D GIS
    Filip Biljecki, Rudi Stouffs, Mohsen Kalantari
    Transactions in GIS, 25(1): 3-5, 2021.
    PDF   DOI   Blog post  

    @article{2021_tgis_editorial, 
        year = {2021}, 
        title = {{Emerging topics in 3D GIS}}, 
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Stouffs, Rudi and Kalantari, Mohsen}, 
        journal = {Transactions in GIS}, 
        doi = {10.1111/tgis.12728}, 
        pages = {3--5}, 
        number = {1}, 
        volume = {25}
    }

10

    GeoBIM benchmark -- Final report
    Francesca Noardo, Ken Arroyo Ohori, Thomas Krijnen, Jantien Stoter, Claire Ellul, Lars Harrie, Filip Biljecki, Giorgio Agugiaro, Margarita Kokla
    ISPRS Scientific initiative 2019, 2020.
    PDF   Project  

    @techreport{2020_geobim_final_report,
     author = {Noardo, F and Arroyo Ohori, A and Biljecki, F and Ellul, C and Harrie, L and Krijnen, T and Kokla, M and Agugiaro, G and Stoter, J},
     institution = {ISPRS},
     title = {GeoBIM benchmark -- ISPRS Scientific initiative 2019 -- Final report},
     year = {2020}
    }

09

    ICDAR'20: Intelligent Cross-Data Analysis and Retrieval
    Minh-Son Dao, M. Fjeld, Filip Biljecki, Uraz Yavanoglu, Mianxiong Dong
    ICMR '20: Proceedings of the 2020 International Conference on Multimedia Retrieval, pp. 580–581, 2020.
    PDF   DOI  

    @inproceedings{2020_icdar_preface,
    author = {Dao, Minh-Son and Fjeld, Morten and Biljecki, Filip and Yavanoglu, Uraz and Dong, Mianxiong},
    title = {ICDAR'20: Intelligent Cross-Data Analysis and Retrieval},
    year = {2020},
    isbn = {9781450370875},
    publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
    address = {New York, NY, USA},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3372278.3388041},
    doi = {10.1145/3372278.3388041},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2020 International Conference on Multimedia Retrieval},
    pages = {580–581},
    numpages = {2},
    location = {Dublin, Ireland},
    series = {ICMR '20}
    }

08

    Smart at Scale: Cities to Watch - 25 Case Studies
    World Economic Forum - Global Future Council on Cities and Urbanization
    Community paper, 2020.
    PDF  

    @techreport{2020_wef,
     author = {{World Economic Forum - Global Future Council on Cities and Urbanization}},
     institution = {{World Economic Forum}},
     title = {Smart at Scale: Cities to Watch - 25 Case Studies},
     year = {2020}
    }

07

    Preface
    Rudi Stouffs, Filip Biljecki, Kean Huat Soon, Victor Khoo
    Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-4/W15: 1-1, 2019.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2019_3dgeoinfo_arch_preface,
        author = {Stouffs, R and Biljecki, F and Soon, KH and Khoo, VHS},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-4-W15-1-2019},
        journal = {Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        pages = {1--1},
        title = {Preface},
        volume = {XLII-4/W15},
        year = {2019}
    }

06

    Preface
    Rudi Stouffs, Filip Biljecki, Kean Huat Soon, Victor Khoo
    ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-4/W8: 1-1, 2019.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2019_3dgeoinfo_ann_preface,
        author = {Stouffs, R and Biljecki, F and Soon, KH and Khoo, VHS},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-IV-4-W8-1-2019},
        journal = {ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        pages = {1--1},
        title = {Preface},
        volume = {IV-4/W8},
        year = {2019}
    }

05

    Preface - ISPRS workshop on advanced geospatial applications for smart cities and regions (SmartGeoApps 2019)
    Giorgio Agugiaro, Mila Koeva, Tu Wei, Filip Biljecki
    Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2/W13: 1287-1287, 2019.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2019_gsw_preface_smartgeoapps_arch,
        author = {Agugiaro, G and Koeva, M and Wei, T and Biljecki, F},
        title = {{Preface -- ISPRS workshop on advanced geospatial applications for smart cities and regions (SmartGeoApps 2019)}},
        journal = {Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        year = {2019},
        volume = {XLII-2/W13},
        pages = {1287--1287},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W13-1287-2019}
    }

04

    Preface - ISPRS workshop on advanced geospatial applications for smart cities and regions (SmartGeoApps 2019)
    Giorgio Agugiaro, Mila Koeva, Tu Wei, Filip Biljecki
    ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-2/W5: 501-501, 2019.
    PDF   DOI     Open access

    @article{2019_gsw_preface_smartgeoapps,
        author = {Agugiaro, G and Koeva, M and Wei, T and Biljecki, F},
        title = {{Preface -- ISPRS workshop on advanced geospatial applications for smart cities and regions (SmartGeoApps 2019)}},
        journal = {ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.},
        year = {2019},
        volume = {IV-2/W5},
        pages = {501--501},
        doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-IV-2-W5-501-2019}
    }

03

    Het Level of Detail van 3D geo-informatie: een bekend maar nauwelijks onderzocht concept
    Filip Biljecki, Hugo Ledoux, Jantien Stoter
    Geo-Info, 14(5): 12-16, 2017.
    PDF  

    @article{2017_geoinfo_lod,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Ledoux, Hugo and Stoter, Jantien},
        title = {{Het Level of Detail van 3D geo-informatie: een bekend maar nauwelijks onderzocht concept}},
        journal = {Geo-Info},
        year = {2017},
        volume = {14},
        number = {5},
        pages = {12--16},
        month = nov
    }

02

    OGC CityGML Quality Interoperability Experiment
    Open Geospatial Consortium
    OGC Public Engineering Report, Document OGC 16-064, 2016.
    PDF   Web   Press release  

    @techreport{2016_ogc_qie,
        author = {{OGC}},
        title = {{OGC CityGML Quality Interoperability Experiment}},
        year = {2016},
        number = {OGC 16-064},
        editor = {Wagner, Detlev and Ledoux, Hugo},
        institution = {Open Geospatial Consortium}
    }

01

    Redefining the Level of Detail for 3D models
    Filip Biljecki, Hugo Ledoux, Jantien Stoter
    GIM International, 28(11): 21-23, 2014.
    PDF  

    @article{2014_gim_lod,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip and Ledoux, Hugo and Stoter, Jantien},
        title = {{Redefining the Level of Detail for 3D models}},
        journal = {GIM International},
        year = {2014},
        volume = {28},
        number = {11},
        pages = {21--23},
        month = nov
    }

Theses

PhD

    Level of detail in 3D city models
    Filip Biljecki (2017)
    PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, 353 p. Defended on 2017-05-01.
    PDF (99MB)   Propositions   Low-res PDF (12MB)   DOI   TU Delft repository    
    The thesis has its dedicated page on the following link.

    @phdthesis{BiljeckiPhD,
        author = {Biljecki, Filip},
        title = {Level of detail in 3D city models},
        school = {Delft University of Technology},
        year = {2017},
        address = {Delft, the Netherlands},
        month = may,
        doi = {10.4233/uuid:f12931b7-5113-47ef-bfd4-688aae3be248},
        ISBN = {9789461868008}
    }
                                    

MSc

    Automatic segmentation and classification of movement trajectories for transportation modes
    Filip Biljecki (2010)
    MSc thesis Geomatics, Delft University of Technology, 114 p. Defended on 2010-07-02.
    PDF   DOI   TU Delft repository   Slides    
    The thesis has its dedicated page on the following link.

    @mastersthesis{BiljeckiMSc,
        title = {{Automatic segmentation and classification of movement trajectories for transportation modes}},
        school = {Delft University of Technology},
        year = {2010},
        address = {Delft, the Netherlands},
        month = jul
        doi = {10.4233/uuid:654587d2-6e93-4619-ab9a-29d95f843f35}
    }